zprávy z Mongolska

Jeho Svatost dalajláma XIV. inspiruje a vzdělává v Dharamsale, v Indii

Jeho Svatost dalajláma XIV. inspiruje a vzdělává v Dharamsale, v Indii - obrázek

Jeho Svatost dalajláma XIV. inspiruje a vzdělává v Dharamsale, v Indii - obrázek

His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama delivered two-day teachings for the goodness sake of the People of Mongolia on the Third Dalai Lama's "Essence of Refined Gold" on November 20-21, 2012. More...

The teachings were initiated at the request of the Eighth incarnation of Panchen Lama (Great Scholar) - Danzanjambalchoijishinen, who is studying at the Goman Datsan, the Main Tibetan Temple in Dharamsala, India.

His Holiness spoke in Tibetan followed by translations into Mongolian, English, Chinese and Russian languages. From Mongolia attended about 1,000 disciples led by Head of the Mongolian Buddhist Center and Gandantegchinlen Monastery, His Eminence Khamba Lama (Abbot) Demberel CHOIJAMTS along with over 3,000 disciples from the rest part of the world.

Historically, Mongolian King Altan Khan offered to the Third Dalai Lama the title of Dalai Lama which literally means Ocean of Wisdom in 1570s; moreover the “'Essence of Refined Gold” is the main teaching created by the Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso (1543 - 1588).
His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama of Tibet inspired and educated an eager audience in the Main Temple of His residence in Dharamshala, India. His Holiness taught and explained the Third Dalai Lama's “Essence of Refined Gold”, the 16th century sacred text and giving a brief history of Tibetan Buddhism and its Mongolian ties. Highlighting the need to have motivation when practicing and cultivating Buddhism, the revered spiritual leader gave insight into Buddhism and the commonalities of major religions as a whole; drawing upon the principles of love, compassion and tolerance as common aspirations.
His Holiness stated, "It's very pleasing that you are taking interest in your own national identity; and with Buddhism itself."
The Essence of Refined Gold
By the Third Dalai Lama, translated by Glenn H. Mullin (1982)
Here, for spiritually inclined beings who wish to take advantage of the opportunities afforded by human life, is a treatise on the Lamrim Tradition of meditation, a tradition known as Stages on the Spiritual Path Leading to Enlightenment.
What is the Lamrim Tradition? It is the essence of all teachings of Buddha, the one path traveled by the high beings of the past, present and future, the legacy of the masters Nagarjuna and Asanga, the religion of supreme people traveling to the earth of omniscience, the unabridged synthesis of all practices included within the three levels of spiritual application. This is the Lamrim Tradition.
Lamrim provides all levels and grades of the techniques passed through Nagarjuna and Asanga, from the practices meant for beginners up to and including the final practice before full Buddhahood, the stage of non-practice.
The Lamrim teaching has four especially great qualities:
1. It reveals how all the various doctrines of Buddha are non-contradictory. If you rely upon the Lamrim teaching, all the words of Buddha will be effectively comprehensible. You will see that there are root practices and branch practices, and that there are direct and indirect teachings, all of which aim at creating helpful circumstances along the stages of spiritual development for a practitioner like yourself.
2. You will take all the various teachings as personal advice. You will see the profound teachings of the Sutras and Tantras, the treatises and dissertations written by later masters, and all levels and branches of practice as methods to use to overcome negative aspects of the mind. The significance of all the teachings of Buddha and his successors - from the teachings on how to follow a spiritual master up to those on how to perceive the most profound aspects of reality - will come into your hand. You will learn how to practice analytical meditation upon the words of the teachings and stabilizing meditation upon the central themes of those words. Thus you will see all the teachings in perspective to your life and progress.
3. You will easily find the thought of Buddha. Of course, the original words of Buddha and those of the later commentators are perfect teachings, but for a beginner they are overwhelmingly numerous, and consequently their meaning is difficult to fathom. Hence, although you may study and contemplate them, you probably will not gain experience of their actual essence; or, even if you should gain it, a tremendous effort and extent of time would be required. However, because the Lamrim tradition has its source in Atisha’s A Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment, which incorporates all the various oral teachings of the supreme Indian masters, even someone like you can easily and quickly arrive at the thought of Buddha through it.
4. The great negativity of abandoning a lineage of Dharma will spontaneously be arrested. When you realize the intent of Buddha, you will see all his direct and indirect teachings as wise and skillful means for satisfying the diverse spiritual needs of the variety of beings. To say that some lineages of Dharma are perfect methods and should be practiced, whereas other lineages are imperfect and should be ignored, is the karma called “abandoning Dharma,” a great negativity indeed. However, if you study the Lamrim you will see how all doctrines of Buddha and lineages coming from him are non-contradictory. Then the great negativity of abandoning an aspect of Dharma will never occur.
Qualities of a Spiritual Master and a Disciple
In general, the qualities of the various masters of the Fundamental Vehicle, Mahayana and Vajrayana methods are manifold, and any Buddhist master is a worthy teacher; yet the specific qualities required of one who gives a discourse on the jewel-like Lamrim tradition are described in Ornament of Mahayana Sutras: he or she should have realization, i.e., his mind stream should:
1. Be tamed with realization of the higher training in ethical conduct
2. Be stilled with realization of the higher training in concentration
3. Be completely tempered with realization of the higher training in wisdom
4. Have authoritative scriptural learning, i.e., heard many teachings on the Three Baskets of Scriptures and so forth from competent masters
5. Be in possession of an awareness that can perceive emptiness
6. Have more learning and realization than the disciple
These are the six necessary qualifications of a Lamrim teacher. As well, he or she should have four altruistic attitudes:
1. Skill and spontaneous creativity in applying the methods to generate progress within the disciples, whom he teaches out of a pure motivation free from grasping for wealth, fame or power
2. Enthusiasm and joy in giving time and energy to teaching
3. Diligence and perseverance in teaching
4. Beyond losing patience with disciples who practice poorly
If you can find a guru possessing these six personal and four altruistic qualities, request him or her for teachings and then follow them well.
The disciple should have three fundamental qualities:
1. Sincerity
2. Intelligence able to discriminate between beneficial and misleading forces on the path
3. Intense longing to gain spiritual understanding and experience
As well, he or she should have a fourth quality - appreciation for the Dharma and the teacher.
Sometimes six qualities are mentioned. A disciple fit to be led along the sublime path of Lamrim practice must:
1. Have great interest in the Dharma
2. During the actual teaching be able to keep his or her mind alert and well-focused
3. Have confidence in and respect for the teacher and teaching
4. Abandon wrong attitudes towards the teaching and maintain receptive ones
5. Maintain conditions conducive to learning
6. Eliminate any unconducive conditions.
If you give a discourse on the Lamrim, try to maintain the qualities of a teacher described above, and if you listen to a discourse cultivate the above qualities of an ideal disciple within yourself.
Death and the Lower Realms
You have attained this precious human form, difficult to gain and extremely meaningful and are now a human being. However, this life will not last forever, and it is definite that you will eventually die. Moreover, you do not know how long death will wait before striking. Therefore immediately exert effort to take life’s essence. You have had infinite previous lives in higher, lower, and intermediate realms, but the Lord of Death, like a thief in a rich market place, has stolen them all indiscriminately. How fortunate that he has let you live this long! Generate a mind so filled with the awareness of death that you sit like a man hunted by an intent assassin.
At the time of death, money, possessions, friends, and servants will not be able to follow you. However, the traces of negative karma created for their sake will pursue you like a shadow. That is how you must go from life. Think it over. At this moment, you are content to eat, drink, and consume, yet life, wealth, sensual objects, and food just burn on and on, and you accomplish nothing of value. Fully direct whatever remains of your life to genuine Dharma practice. Do this from today onward, not from tomorrow, for death may strike tonight.
You may ask: If, with the exception of Dharma, nothing helps at the time of death, then how does Dharma help, and how does non-Dharma harm?
At death you do not simply evaporate. Death is followed by rebirth, and whether your rebirth is happy or miserable, high or low, is determined by the state of your mind at the time of death. Thus except for the power of karma, ordinary people are powerless. They take the rebirth thrown by the force of their positive and negative karmas—the karmic seeds left by previous deeds of body, speech, and mind. If at the time of death a positive thought predominates, a happy rebirth will follow. If a negative thought predominates, one is born into one of the three lower realms where one suffers intense pain. What are the torments of the three lower realms? To quote Acharya Nagarjuna,
Remember that in the lower hells,
One burns like a sun
In the upper hells one freezes.
Remember that hungry ghosts and spirits
Suffer from hunger, thirst, and climate.
Remember that animals suffer
The consequences of stupidity.
Abandon the karmic causes of such misery
And cultivate the causes of joy.
Human life is rare and precious;
Do not make it a cause of pain.
Take heed; use it well.
As Nagarjuna implies, the sufferings of the hot and cold hells are unendurable, the sufferings of hungry ghosts are horrendous, and the sufferings of animals—eating one another, being domesticated and ruled by humans, being dumb, and so forth—are overwhelming. Right now you cannot hold your hand in fire for even a few seconds. You cannot sit naked on ice in the winter for more than a few minutes. To pass even a single day without eating or drinking anything brings great difficulty, and merely a tiny bee sting seems terrible. How then will you be able to bear the heat or cold of the hells, the anguish of the hungry ghosts, or the horrors of animal existence? Meditate on the sufferings of the lower realms until you are filled with dread and apprehension. Now that you have gained an auspicious human form, abandon the causes of lower rebirth and cultivate the causes of a happy rebirth. Determine to apply yourself to the methods that cut off the path to the lower realms.
The Law of Karma and Its Results
One may wonder: Granted, taking refuge in the Three Jewels can protect me from the misery of lower rebirth; but how can I create the causes that bring about a higher rebirth?
For this, we must consider the four aspects of karmic law:
1. Positive and negative deeds plant seeds that will bear respective fruit, i.e., goodness produces future happiness and evil produces future misery
2. One seed produces many fruits, each of which has many seeds of a like nature
3. A deed not done produces no result
4. Every deed you do with your body, speech, or mind leaves a karmic seed in your continuum that is never exhausted (unless worked out or neutralized by purification).
As explained here, abandon all negative activity in general and contemplate the four unpleasant aspects of the ten non-virtues of body, speech, and mind in particular: killing, stealing, and unwise or unkind sexual activity; lying, slandering others, speaking harshly, and indulging in meaningless talk; covetousness, ill-will, and holding distorted views. To show the four unpleasant aspects of karma by the example of the results of killing: 1) the main effect is lower rebirth; 2) the causally concordant experiential effect is that in a future rebirth you will be killed or will see many dear ones killed; 3) the causally concordant behavioral effect is that you will have the tendency to kill again in future lives and thus multiply the negative karma; and 4) the effect on the environment is that even if you gain a good rebirth the environment around you will be violent.
By guarding the ethical conduct of avoiding the ten non-virtues you will have a good rebirth. But if you wish to go beyond that and gain the eight qualities conducive to continuing along the supreme path to omniscience—qualities such as high status, a good family, a strong mind, a harmonious body, and so forth—then also create their causes: abandon harming any living beings, make offerings of light and so forth to the Three Jewels, offer clothes, etc., to the needy, and by overcoming pride, have respect for all that lives. Take the responsibility of these practices into your own hands through the forces of mindfulness and conscientiousness.
However, if occasionally strong mental afflictions overpower you, and you commit a breach of practice, do not be apathetic but confess the unwanted karmic obstacle at the proper time and place and, by means of the four opponent powers, cleanse all stains of body, speech, and mind. These four are:
1. Contemplating the shortcomings of evil in order to develop remorse for having committed negativity;
2. Relying upon the objects of refuge and bodhicitta as forces with the power to purify the mind of karmic stains;
3. Generating strong determination to turn away from such negative courses of action in the future
4. Applying positive counteractive forces, such as the Vajrasattva mantra and so forth.
Generating Bodhicitta
A more detailed explanation:
1. Recognize that all beings have been your mother. Because there is no findable beginning to sentient life and cyclic existence, you must have had an infinite number of previous lives, as have all other beings. Thus there is no place where you have not taken birth, and there is no sentient being who has not been your parent. In fact, each sentient being has been your parent countless times. If you search throughout the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth, you cannot find a being who has not been your mother. All sentient beings have shown kindness towards us equal to the kindness of our mother of this life. Consequently see them as being only kind.
2. Be mindful of the kindness of the infinite sentient beings. How has the mother of this life shown you kindness? When you were in her womb, she thought only about how to protect and care for you. After you were born she took you and wrapped you in soft garments, held you in her arms, gazed on you with eyes of love, smiled on you affectionately, out of mercy gave you milk from her breasts, and held you to her body to keep you warm. Then for year after year she prepared food for you and cleaned the mucus and excrement from your body. Even if she was mortally ill and you contracted a minor disease, she would think solely about you. She shielded and protected you from every difficulty, gave you whatever she could to help you accomplish your wishes, and anything you could not do by yourself she did for you. In fact, she protected your life and person in every possible manner. In this way, repeatedly contemplate that your mother has helped you greatly and has been extremely kind to you.
Then visualize simultaneously the three categories of being: those close to you, such as your family and friends of this life; neutral people with whom you have had no real contact; and enemies or those who have harmed you in this life. Consider how each of them has been your mother uncountable times in the past. Uncountable times have they given you a human rebirth, protecting you as much as has the mother of this life, showing you immeasurable kindness, and helping you limitlessly again and again.
3. Wish to repay them. However, the mother sentient beings who have nurtured you with kindness so many times are disturbed by the demons of the mental afflictions. Their minds are uncontrolled, as if they were insane. Their wisdom-eye blinded with the smoke of ignorance, and they have no way to see the paths leading to higher rebirth, liberation, or omniscience. Most of them lack a spiritual master who can lead them to the city of freedom and thus are like blind beggars with no guide. Every day they further divorce themselves from happiness because of unwholesome actions of body, speech, and mind. Like members of a drunken procession staggering towards a cliff, they are stumbling over the precipice of evil into the sufferings of cyclic existence and the lower realms. Think, “If I do not do something for these pathetic, feeble beings, who will? If responsibility for them does not fall upon my shoulders, upon whose will it fall? If I ignored these kind beings and worked only for my own liberation from samsara, what lack of conscience and consideration! “Furthermore, if they attained the various happy fruits of samsara, such as the states of Brahma, Indra, or the like, their peace would not be eternal. From now on, I will think less of myself and more of mitigating the samsaric suffering of the living beings as vast as space, and by every possible means I will work for enlightenment in order to be able to place them in the joy of peerless liberation.”
4 & 5. Love and compassion. Think, “Why should these mother beings, bereft of happiness, not have happiness? May they be happy. In every way possible, may I contribute to their happiness. Why shouldn’t mother beings who are aching with misery be separated from misery? May they be separated from it. May I contribute to their being separated from it.”
6. The extraordinary attitude, and the one effect, bodhicitta. Think, “However, do I have the power to accomplish these two wishes? Not to mention all sentient beings, I don’t have power to free even one from suffering nor place even one in transcendental happiness. For that very reason, I resolve to attain perfect Buddhahood, and if I give up that resolve, surely I will fall into the lower realms. Yet I can do nothing to free beings from suffering and place them in peerless happiness until I have attained full Buddhahood myself. Therefore with the wish to be able to free sentient beings from even the deepest suffering and bring them to ultimate joy, I will immediately start working in every conceivable way to realize the state of complete, perfect enlightenment.”

Source: InfoMongolia


05.07.2013 17:51:48
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